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AUTOINFLAMMATORY DISEASE

AUTOINFLAMMATORY DISEASES

OVERVIEW

Autoimmune disease are a group of rare disorders caused by a problem with the body’s natural defenses. They are characterized by a periodic or chronic systemic inflammation, usually without the involvement of adaptive immunity. A quick search for “Apollo hospital Guwahati” in the Google search box will throw up results for you to consult with a doctor regarding Auto-inflammatory diseases.

The immune system is made up of different parts that come together as you grow. 

  1. The acquired immune system (which develops as you grow) is responsible for protecting you from viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens. When invaders come into your body, your body produces antibodies in order to remember them. If the infection returns, your body can fight it off. 
  2. The innate immune system uses white blood cells instead of antibodies to fight off invaders.

Problems with the innate immune system response are referred to as auto-inflammatory disorders. Immune cells can erroneously target healthy tissues in the body, signalling the body to fight them. Inflammation can induce severe spells of fever, rash, or joint swelling. Amyloidosis, a potentially deadly deposit of a blood protein in important organs, is also a danger with these disorders. It is not unusual for people to have multiple cases of an auto-inflammatory disease in their families.

These diseases are often passed down from parent to child. Autoimmune diseases are relatively rare, but can happen when a new gene mutation develops early in embryonic development. This mutation can be triggered by environmental factors, such as trauma or illness, and cause an autoimmune disease to develop. Recent advances in genetics have allowed researchers to identify changes in the genes that are responsible for these conditions. This has helped researchers to diagnose specific auto inflammatory diseases through the genes that cause them.

TYPES OF AUTOINFLAMMATORY DISEASES WITH SYMPTOMS

The most common symptom of auto-inflammatory disorders is a repeated fever. If you display any of the following symptoms in clusters, you may have an auto-inflammatory disease. Type “Apollo hospital Guwahati” in the Google search box to get tested today.

  • Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF)

Symptoms include

  1. Severe abdominal pain caused by stomach cavity inflammation (peritonitis).
  2. Recurrent fever
  3. Arthritis (painful, swollen joints).
  4. Chest pain from inflammation of the lung cavity (pleurisy).
  5. Skin rashes.
  • Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID) affects the skin, joints, eyes, and central nervous system. The first sign of the disease in children is a rash that develops in the first six weeks after birth. Other symptoms that often comes later are:
  1. Fever.
  2. Meningitis.
  3. Joint damage.
  4. Vision loss.
  5. Hearing loss.
  6. Mental retardation.
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS). It’s symptoms are:
  1. Long, intense bouts of high fever.
  2. Severe pain in the abdomen, chest, or joints.
  3. Skin rash.
  4. Inflammation in or around the eyes.
  • Children with DIRA deficiency are at an increased risk for developing serious conditions, such as infection, asthma, and cancer. Some of its symptoms are:
  1. Deformity and pain in the bones.
  2. Inflammation of the connective tissue layer around bone 
  3. Swelling of bone tissue.
  4. Skin rash that can cover most of the body.
  • Behçet’s disease can cause the following symptoms:
  1. Redness and swelling in the eyes.
  2. Swelling of the digestive system, brain, and spinal cord.
  3. Arthritis.
  4. Skin problems.
  5. Mouth or genital sores.
  • Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis (CANDLE) can include symptoms that generally develop during the first year of life, such as lipodystrophy and elevated body temperature.
  1. Recurrent fevers.
  2. High temperature
  3. Purpura (Haemorrhaging of the skin and mucous membranes that result in the appearance of purplish spots and patches). 
  4. Joint pain.
  5. Contractures.
  6. Developmental delay.
  7. Facial changes, including a loss of fat on the face, and swollen lips and eyelids.
A diagnosis of an autoinflammatory disease can be done in the following ways:
  1. Physical exam: By knowing about your outward signs and symptoms and conducting an exam of the skin and joints, an effective treatment plan can be put together.
  2. Review of family medical history: It is more likely to develop  an autoinflammatory disorder if your family has a history of the same.
  3. Bloodwork: During a flare-up, your bloodwork will show an increase in certain blood markers that indicate inflammation in your body.
  4. Genetic testing: A genetic screening can help determine if you have a specific gene mutation associated with an autoinflammatory disease.
TREATMENT

Treatment of auto-inflammatory illnesses entails reduction of inflammation, and suppression of hyperactive immune response. Treatments will also aid in reducing recurring fever, discomfort, and other inflammatory response-related symptoms.

Early on, inflammation is treated with corticosteroid treatment and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs). However, corticosteroids should not be used for an extended period of time because of their dangerous side effects, which include weight gain, high blood pressure, fluid retention in the legs, mood changes, and cognitive issues.

Colchicine has proven effective in treating familial Mediterranean fever and avoiding its consequences. Colchicine is the primary therapy for gout, a kind of arthritis brought on by the growth of uric acid crystals in a joint.

Several different auto-inflammatory illnesses have been effectively treated with antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) treatment. Other biologics that inhibit the interleukin-1 protein, such as Anakinra (Kineret) and Ilaris (canakinumab), have demonstrated effectiveness in a variety of these disorders.

To get the right treatment process prescribed for your condition, type “Apollo hospital Guwahati” in the Google search box.

PREVENTION

  1. Quit smoking: Your chance of contracting an autoimmune illness like rheumatoid arthritis rises by a mile if you smoke. Discuss the best strategy to quit smoking with your doctor, who may use nicotine replacement therapy, which can take the form of gum, patches, inhalers, sprays, or lozenges, may be advised by certain healthcare professionals. Prescription drugs for withdrawal relief, such as Chantix or Zyban. By educating you on useful techniques, behavioural therapy can assist you in quitting smoking.
  2. Avoid exposure to harmful environmental contaminants: Asbestos and silica are known environmental toxins that have been implicated in the development of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Always use protective equipment such as a mask and gloves when working with corrosive substances. Avoid being around areas where asbestos, silica, or other pollutants could be present. Harsh chemicals, such as pesticides and paint thinner, can be very harmful to the environment.
  3. Try a gluten-free diet: The body’s immune system attacks the small intestine in people with celiac disease, leading to its destruction. The presence of gluten sensitivity may be linked to the development of an illness caused by gluten ingestion. If you are intolerant to gluten and experience fatigue and stomach-aches, and diarrhoea, consider eliminating it from your diet by avoiding wheat products, reading product labels carefully, and buying gluten-free foods. Celiac disease is a condition that is caused by a problem with the gluten protein in the food you eat, which can lead to fatigue and diarrhoea. \
  4. Maintain a healthy weight

    : An increased risk of autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, is associated with being overweight or obese. To successfully maintain or lose weight, eat a balanced and healthy diet, and start exercising regularly. Regularly engage in moderate activity (such as walking, running, biking, skating, or swimming) for at least 30 minutes each week. Processed, fatty or sugary foods should be avoided, which are associated with unhealthy weight gain.

  5. Increase your vitamin D intake. By improving your diet and modestly exposing yourself to mild sunlight, such as 5 to 10 minutes. If you don’t get enough vitamin D, your chance of developing autoimmune conditions like type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis increases. Eat fatty fish like salmon, tuna, and mackerel once or twice a week to increase your intake of vitamin D. Fish liver oils also contain vitamin D, or just supplements. 
  6. Reduce stress and do routine check-ups for autoimmune disease.

Consult a doctor today for more preventive measures by typing “Apollo hospital Guwahati” in the Google search box.

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